This is the most important and crucial stage where building plans and designs are finalized and care is taken that the phase is a well-planned construction schedule. Proper construction practices are needed to adhere to proper safety measures.
The Strong foundation is the most important factor to increase the longevity and safety of your building structure. Some useful checks for a strong foundation
- It is preferable to get the soil testing done before designing the foundation of the building
- The foundation should rest on the firm soil and be taken to a minimum depth of 1.2m from the original ground level
- The area of the foundation should be significant to transfer the load safely to the ground on which it rests
- The area of the foundation depends on load carrying capacity of the soil, it is important to mark the location and size of the foundation before excavation
Layout and Earth Work
A layout is the marking of boundary lines for digging the foundation. Both layout and excavation work should be done as per the drawing. Find some useful tips as given below:
- Carry out proper surveying to obtain the layout plan
- Mark all trench excavation lines with respect to the centre line of walls
- Ensure the excavation is done true to levels, slope, shape and pattern
- Consolidate the bed of excavation by watering and ramming. Soft or defective earth should be dug out and filled with lean concrete
- Brace the sides of excavation with tight soaring work for deep excavation to avoid collapsing the sides of the excavation area
Termite infestation can weaken the building structure and damage wooden materials. Some useful tips to keep your home free of termites are given below:
- The soil around the foundation should be treated up to the plinth level with appropriate chemicals
- The chemical barrier should be continuous and complete
- Treatment can be done pre, during and post construction stages
- Care should be taken to ensure that the chemicals should not contaminate the domestic water sources
It is a temporary structure to support the construction while the concrete work is in progress and to develop required strength of concreting before releasing the same.
- The formwork should design and constructed to be sufficiently rigid during placing & compaction of concrete and preferably leak-proof to prevent loss of slurry from the concrete.
- Use releasing agent for smooth finish of concrete.
- The formwork should be sufficiently clean from the foreign matter before the casting.
The concrete mix needs to be in the proper ratio and mixture needs to use within 30 minutes of the preparation time. Mixer machines are required for best results. Water ratio needs to be proper using more water weakens the concrete and enhances the cracking potential. Compaction is done with the vertical vibrator. The concrete mix poured within a height of 1.5 meters maximum to avoid any separation of aggregates. Proper leveling and slope of the roof should be maintained during placing of concrete to avoid accumulation of water on the roof.
Buildings become safe if the walls are well built strong and sturdy. Find the tips below:
- Bricks/Blocks should be laid on a full bed of mortar mixed properly as per the guidance of the Engineer
- The joints should be fully filled and packed with the mortar of the same mix.
- Vertical joint should be done staggered
- For block work L/H ratio to be properly maintained and RCC band with stool columns, etc need to be provided as per IS code
- The brickwork should be cured well to make it strong
Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) Work has to be done by measuring few steps that comprised of
Batching, Mixing & Placing:
Use a wooden box of specific sizes for convenient batching and maintain a proper ratio of materials. Always use a mixer machine for best results. Place all the concrete mix within 30 minutes after preparation. Use water to obtain the required workability. Additional water weakens the concrete and enhances the cracking potential. Use vibrator vertically for proper compaction. Concrete must not be over vibrated. Do not add water during compacting. The concrete should be poured within a height of 1.5 meters maximum to avoid any separation of aggregators. Proper leveling and the slope of the roof should be maintained during placing of concrete to avoid accumulation of water on the roof.
The process of maintaining moisture in the concrete is called curing. During the curing process, the concrete hardens and gets maximum strength. Concrete begins to dry after casting therefore curing should start within 12 – 15 hrs of the casting. So, the parts exposed to the environment should be cured before the dry. The curing process is continuous as per the stipulated time as mentioned in BIS codes. Usually, 14 – 21 days is the proper curing time for concrete slabs and beams.
For flat surfaces like floors, roofs etc curing should be done by pond formation. For columns, after the shuttering is removed, they must be wrapped with used jute bags that must be kept wet by intermittent sparkling of water at least for 3 to 4 times in a day, for 2 to 3 weeks.
Concrete Mix & water-cement ratio and material requirement for 1 cubic meter concrete:
|Concrete mix||Water & Cement Ratio||Water (Litre) per bag of cement||Cement (Bags)||Sand (cubic meter)||Aggregates (Cubic meter)||Steel Rebars (kg)|
It is a vital component in Reinforced Cement Concrete. It is important to choose the right steel and place it right to prevent cracking or any destruction of the R.C.C. members. Some useful tips are given below:
- Same grade and quality TMT bar is the best to use for whole structure
- Maintain bar bending schedule well in advance before cutting & bending of TMT bar to minimize the wastage
- Use concrete cover blocks at regular intervals of same strength of concrete
- Reinforcement bars to be positioned properly and tightly fixed
- For the bars joining adequate lap, length need to be maintained and laps should be staggered
Critical parameters to judge reinforcement bars:
- Required tensile strength
- Consistency of physical properties across the length of the bars
- Adequate ductility
- Lower impurities
- Easy to bend (during fabrication)
- Bond with concrete
Advantages of Shyam Steel Fe 500D TMT
- Superior tensile strength, yield strength across the full length (much above the required strength as per IS 1786:2008)
- Superior Ductility (much above the requirement)
- Technical service to customers
- Manufactured from iron ore have the highest grade of purity and lower impurities of sulphur and phosphorus content, making it stronger than any other comparable make in Fe 500D category
It protects the exposed surfaces and masonry joints from external environment & provides lateral stability to a wall by binding all bricks or stones together.
In order to safeguard your precious construction, it is highly important to take strict measures to make your house waterproof. Various waterproofs technique, which you can take during the construction and afterwards as well.
Few Leakage reasons and remedies to that
Reasons for leakages/seepages
|Accumulation of water on the roof, etc.||Provide drainage, Maintain slope during concreting|
|Poor quality of construction materials||Procure quality materials as per the guidebook|
|Poor compaction||Use vibrator for compaction|
|Capillary in brickwork||Use damp proof course(DPC) at plinth level|
|Leakage from water retaining structure like water tank etc.||Use waterproofing materials for water retaining structure. Ask expert opinion on waterproofing treatment.|
Construction Expense item-wise
Construction cost depends on the quality of construction and the finishing work one wants to have. You can have an idea of the itemized cost of construction of your house from the table below:
|Items||% of Total Cost|
|Design & Engineers fee||3-5%|
|Boundary Wall & Main Door||1-3%|
|Layout & Excavation||2-4%|
|Plumbing & Sanitation||4-6%|
|Shuttering & Formwork||2-4%|
|Doors & Windows||5-7%|
|Stone & Aggregates||4-6%|
|Labour contractor for Concrete||8-10%|